Periodontitis or, colloquially, periodontitis is a multifactorial disease, i. H. an interplay of several factors, they determine the development, the course and the severity. In addition to genetic (inherited) factors, other risk factors such as systemic diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus), lifestyle habits (smoking or excessive alcohol consumption), diet, the social environment or psychological and physical overload (e.g. negative stress) can increase the likelihood of Increase the development and progression of periodontal disease.
It has been shown that smokers develop periodontitis more often and the course of the disease is significantly more severe than with non-smokers. Periodontal disease itself is also a risk factor. Untreated periodontal disease increases the likelihood of heart disease, diabetes and pregnancy complications.
“Apparently there is a two-way relationship between periodontitis and diabetes. Here, diabetes favors the development, progression and severity of periodontitis. The periodontal infection complicates the glycemic control of diabetes, increases the risk of diabetes-associated complications and presumably their development "(from: Jepsen et al. 2011, Bundesgesundheitsblatt 54: 1089-1096)